What is Engineering?

Engineering is a field of study that combines science, technology, and mathematics to develop, create, and maintain machines, structures, software, hardware, and systems and processes. This discipline offers a wide range of job options in a variety of businesses, making it one of the most popular courses for students following Class XII, particularly those in the Science stream.

Students interested in studying engineering in India can select from approximately 100 specialization\’s, including Computer Science Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electronics Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and Mechanical Engineering.

Engineering is the third most popular undergraduate track, according to a 2018-19 report by the All India Survey of Higher Education (AISHE), which is sponsored by the Ministry of Human Resource and Development (MHRD). Male students make up 71.1 percent of Engineering and Technology students, while female students make up 28.9%.

Certain of the greatest institutes to study engineering are the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and National Institutes of Technology (NITs), as well as some private technical institutes like Birla Institute of Science and Technology (BITS) Pilani. According to Shiksha, India has around 3,500 colleges that provide engineering programmes.

Eligibility for Engineering Courses

BE/BTech Candidates must have passed the Class XII exam from a recognised board with Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics as core subjects
They must also have secured minimum aggregate marks of 60 per cent in the above subjects combined
BTech Lateral EntryCandidates must have passed a three-year Diploma granted by the Board of Technical Examination of a State Government, with minimum 45 per cent aggregate marks or equivalent
ME/MTechCandidates who have completed their BE/BTech degree with a valid score in GATE are eligible for ME/MTech degree course
DiplomaAspirants must have passed Secondary School Leaving Certificate (SSLC)/tenth standard/equivalent examination, with at least 35 per cent in Science and Maths subjects
PhDAspirants must have secured a minimum of 55 per cent marks or 5.5 CPI marks in BTech/MTech or equivalent degree in appropriate branches

Engineering Entrance Exams

The majority of engineering colleges in India admit students based on their entrance exam results and ranks. Some technical colleges recognise AIR (All India Ranks) obtained in national level exams, while others hold their own entrance examination. Here are some of the most well-known engineering exams in India, both at the undergraduate and graduate levels.

JEE MainGATE is one of the most popular postgraduate engineering entrance exam for admissions to MTech programmes in India
JEE Advanced

The schedules for the majority of engineering entrance exams have been revealed for 2021. The following is a list of some of the country\’s most important forthcoming exam events for BTech admissions. Students can learn more about each exam by clicking on it.

Exam Upcoming Event 
JEE Main (April) 2021The new exam date for JEE Main April & May 2021 is expected to be announced in June, and the exam is most likely to be conducted in August
MHT CET 2021MHT CET 2021 syllabus and exam pattern released. Application form to be released anytime soon.
UPCET (Earlier UPSEE) 2021No exam to be held for BTech and BArch. Admissions will be done through counselling basis JEE Main scores 
BCECE 2021No exam to be held for BTech and BArch. Admissions will be done through counselling basis JEE Main scores 
AP EAMCET 2021AP EAMCET 2021 registration and exam dates are yet to be announced. 
TS EAMCET 2021Application forms available till May 18, 2021, without a late fee. TS EAMCET 2021 exam for engineering courses to be conducted from July 7 to 9, 2021.
BITSAT 2021BITS Pilani has made available the BITSAT 2021 application form on February 23 and the last date to fill it is May 29.
KEAM 2021CEE Kerala is expected to release the notification regarding the KEAM 2021 registration, admit card release and exam dates any time soon.

Engineering Courses

Engineering programmes are available at the undergraduate (UG), postgraduate (PG), and doctoral (PhD) levels in India. The following are the several types of engineering courses available at various levels:

UG CoursesPG CoursesDoctoral Courses
BTech Lateral Entry
Integrated/Dual degree

Engineering Branches

Mechanical Engineering, Computer Engineering, Electronics Engineering, Civil Engineering and Electrical Engineering are the top five engineering streams according to MHRD’s AISHE report. Besides these, there are numerous other engineering specializations/branches that candidates can choose from. Given below are some:

Aeronautical EngineeringIndustrial Engineering
Aerospace EngineeringMarine Engineering
Automobile EngineeringMechanical Engineering
Biomedical EngineeringMechatronics Engineering
Biotechnology EngineeringMetallurgical Engineering
Ceramic EngineeringMining Engineering
Chemical EngineeringPetroleum Engineering
Civil EngineeringPower Engineering
Communications EngineeringProduction Engineering
Computer Science EngineeringRobotics Engineering
Construction EngineeringStructural Engineering
Electrical EngineeringTelecommunication Engineering
Electronics & Communication EngineeringTextile Engineering
Electronics EngineeringTool Engineering
Environmental EngineeringTransportation Engineering

Aeronautical Engineering

Aeronautical Engineering is the study, design, and construction of flight-capable machinery, as well as the techniques for operating aeroplanes. This course prepares engineers to design, build, test, and analyse commercial and military aeroplanes, missiles, and spacecraft. Aerospace engineers work on aeroplanes, spacecraft, aerospace equipment, satellites, and missiles and are responsible for their research, design, and manufacture. They also work on innovative commercial aviation, defence, and space exploration technology.

What does an Aeronautical Engineer do?

Commercial and military aeroplanes, missiles, and spacecraft are designed, developed, tested, and manufactured by aeronautical engineers.
Supersonic aircraft, helicopters, space shuttles, satellites, and rockets are among the astonishing technology developed and designed by aeronautical engineers.
Aerospace engineers have helped to make things like fast postal delivery and moon travel possible.

Engineers are trying to launch a space shuttle that will travel to the moon.

What is the future for a Aeronautical Engineering graduate?

Graduates in Aeronautical Engineering are knowledgeable in aerodynamics, aerospace materials, structures, propulsion, flight mechanics, and stability and control. They can work as a Design or Manufacturing Engineer in aviation manufacturing, defence services, or research and development firms.
Aeronautical Engineering Courses provide students with multi-faceted training in areas such as aircraft and missile manufacture and development. In the fields of defence and space science, an aeronautical engineer can design, test, and contribute to the development of new technologies.

The majority of aeronautical engineers in India work for the Indian Air Force.The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) are two organisations that work together.The Minister of Defense is a person who is in charge of ensuring that the country\’s defence. Job openings can also be found on the website.

Department of Civil Aviation

The National Aeronautical Laboratory is a federal agency that conducts research and development in the

DRDO (Defense Research and Development Organization) and DRDO (Defense Research and Development Organization) are two organisations that work together to develop

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) is a company that manufactures aircraft in India (HAL).

Aeronautical engineers can find work in the United States, France, the United Kingdom, and Germany, among other countries. As a result, aeronautical engineers from all over the world visit these countries. Engineers and technical experts in NASA account for a sizable part of the workforce.

Aerospace Engineering

Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the development, testing, and manufacture of aeroplanes, spacecraft, and related systems and equipment. Aeronautical engineering and astronautical engineering are two significant and overlapping sections of the field that have traditionally concentrated on difficulties connected to atmospheric and space flight.

Aeronautical Engineering is concerned with the theory, technology, and practise of flight within the atmosphere of the earth.

The science and technology of spacecraft and launch vehicles are the subject of Astronautical Engineering.

What does an aerospace engineer do?

Aerospace engineers create cutting-edge technology and incorporate them into aircraft systems for transportation, communications, exploration, and defence. Design and production of aeroplanes, spacecraft, propulsion systems, satellites, and missiles, as well as the design and testing of aircraft and aerospace goods, components, and subassemblies, are all part of this.

Aerodynamics, materials and constructions, propulsion, vehicle dynamics and control, and software are all areas in which successful aerospace engineers excel.

Where do aerospace engineers work?

Aerospace engineers work primarily in the aerospace industry, at systems and software suppliers, corporate labs, government labs, and universities. The skill set of aerospace engineers is extremely broad and multidisciplinary, and the experience of aerospace engineers as systems architects and engineers allows them to make contributions in many diverse sectors.

Automobile Engineering

Since motor vehicles capable of transporting passengers have been in vogue, Automobile or Automotive Engineering has acquired reputation and importance. Vehicle Engineers are in high demand now, thanks to the increasing rise of car component manufacturers and the automobile industry. Automobile Engineering, often known as Automotive Engineering or Vehicle Engineering, is a tough subject of engineering with a wide range of opportunities.

This branch is responsible for the design, development, manufacture, testing, and maintenance and servicing of automobiles such as cars, trucks, motorcycles, scooters, and other similar vehicles, as well as the related sub-engineering systems.

Automobile Engineering combines the aspects of various engineering disciplines such as mechanical, electrical, electronic, software, and safety engineering to create the optimal balance of manufacturing and developing autos.

Specialized training is required to become a professional vehicle engineer, and it is a job that involves a great deal of hard work, devotion, determination, and devotion.

An Automobile Engineer\’s main responsibilities include designing, developing, producing, and testing vehicles from concept to production.

Career Prospects

Automobile manufacturing industries, production facilities, service stations, state road transport corporations, private transport firms, insurance firms, and motor vehicle departments are only some of the prospects available to aspirants in this industry.

Automobile engineers with computer skills in CAD (Computer Aided Develop), CAM (Automation), and ERP can work as Designers in computer-aided industries or design car models in firms\’ Research and Development departments. Car engineering diploma holders can open their own business, such as an automobile maintenance facility or a garage.

Maintenance of automobiles Engineers may be offered the position of general mechanical supervisor at a workshop, factory, or garage. With a B. tech in automotive engineering and an MBA, you could advance to the front lines of marketing management.

Candidates with a master\’s degree and 5 years of graduate-level teaching experience or industrial experience in a reputable firm can work as lecturers. PhD holders in Automobile Engineering can work as researchers or scientists and contribute to the field\’s advancement.

Biomedical Engineering

Biomedical Engineering (BME) is a new and interesting engineering profession with a lot of potential for study, development, and employment. The study and application of engineering ideas and techniques to the medical profession is known as biomedical engineering. It is a mixture of biological and medical technical knowledge aimed at improving life quality. It is an excellent career choice for those who are passionate about medical and healthcare.

Prosthetics, medical equipment, diagnostic gadgets, medicines, and other therapies are all part of BME\’s scope of work. Bio-instrumentation, bio-materials, bio-mechanics, medical imaging, genetic engineering, orthopaedic surgery, cellular and tissue engineering are all part of this unique field. Interdisciplinary courses such as Mechatronics, Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM), Geographical Information System (GIS), Bio Technology, Bio Mechanics, Bio Medical Instrumentation, and Bio Medical Engineering arose from the merging of Mechanical Engineering, Electronics Engineering, Sciences, and Computers for communication and control.

Because of the increasing complexity of medical technology around the world, Biomedical Engineering is becoming more popular. As a result, skilled people to bridge the gap between clinical care and applied medical technology are in high demand.

Bio-engineers or biomedical engineers are the terms used to describe these individuals. A biomedical engineer must be knowledgeable in engineering, biological, and medical sciences. They must be able to define a medical problem in engineering terms and come up with a solution that meets both engineering and clinical criteria. Typical equipment and systems they create and build include cardiac monitors, clinical computers, artificial hearts, contact lenses, wheel chairs, and artificial tendons. They\’re also crucial in hospital and health-care technology management.

Career Prospects

Job opportunities for biomedical engineers and technicians can be found in a variety of worldwide industries, including contemporary health care, hospitals, medical equipment manufacturing units, industrial enterprises, educational and medical institutions, pharmaceuticals, government regulatory agencies, and so on. They must collaborate closely with other healthcare professionals such as physicians, nurses, therapists, and technicians in hospitals. They create unique gadgets and offer guidance on how to choose, use, and maintain medical equipment. Biomedical Engineers use their knowledge of biological systems and technology to build and test new products in the workplace.

In medical research facilities, biomedical engineers are essential. They are also appointed as technical advisors to medical equipment firms\’ marketing departments. Apart from computer-assisted surgery and extensive research in molecular, cellular, and tissue engineering, biomedical engineers are needed in the rapidly increasing rehabilitation and orthopaedic engineering disciplines.

Biomedical experts in India and other nations have a plethora of opportunities, particularly in the field of research and development (R& D), where they can conduct advanced research in universities, research institutes, and government agencies. They supervise laboratories and equipment and collaborate with other researchers to engage in or direct research activities. Depending on their abilities and inclinations, biomedical experts may be engaged in R&D or sales and marketing by firms such as BPL, Larsen & Toubro, Wipro Medical, and Siemens.

Biotechnology Engineering

Any technological application that uses biological systems or living creatures to create or change products or processes for a specific use is referred to as biotechnology. It refers to the employment of microorganisms like bacteria and yeasts, as well as biological molecules like enzymes, in industrial and manufacturing processes. Some pharmaceuticals, synthetic hormones, and bulk consumables, as well as bioconversion of organic waste, are among the applications. Biotechnology encompasses a wide range of topics such as biochemistry, genetics, microbiology, chemistry, and engineering, to name a few. Agriculture, animal husbandry, medicine and vaccine research, long-term disease treatment, pollution control and waste management, ecological conservation, energy generation and conservation, and many more fields benefit from biotechnology.

What does a Bio Tech Engineer do?

Biotech engineers work on medicinal procedures like getting organisms to create new medications or employing stem cells to restore damaged human tissues and re-grow complete organs.

Biotechnologists are involved in industrial operations such as the creation of novel preservatives for food preservation or the manufacturing of new chemicals.

Medical gadgets, tools used in hospitals, and medical labs are dealt with by Bio-Tech Engineers.

Bioinformatics, which incorporates the application of applied mathematics, informatics, statistics, computer science, artificial intelligence, chemistry, and biochemistry, is also dealt with by Bio Tech Engineers.

What is the future for a Bio Technology graduate?

Biotechnologists work in pharmaceutical firms, chemical firms, food processing firms, agriculture, and other related businesses. Opportunities for Bio-Tech Engineers can be found in any of the following categories.

Working as a Bio-Instrumentation Engineer for medical equipment manufacturing and maintenance companies

In hospitals, clinical engineers are responsible for developing and maintaining computer databases of medical devices and equipment records.

As an Orthopedic Bio-Engineer, I\’m in charge of artificial joint design and development.

In the pharmaceutical and biomedical industries, genetic engineers are needed.

Career Prospects

Biotechnology in India, like the IT sector, has significant growth potential and contributes to a total biotech market of US$100 billion. The country has a $91 billion global market, and there is room for low-cost R&D through bio-partnering and co-developing innovations, mostly with Chinese and American firms. More and more international pharmaceutical corporations are looking to establish research and development centres in India.

A biotechnologist can work in a variety of settings. Students in India can primarily look for work in the following fields:

Pharmaceutics and drug development

Laboratories supported by the government

The government institutes and organisations, such as Department of Biotechnology (DBT), several agriculture, dairy and horticulture institutes offer employment to Biotechnology professionals.

In the private sector, there are tremendous job openings for biotechnologists. Drug companies in biotechnology like Dabur, Ranbaxy, Hindustan Lever, Dr. Reddy\’s Labs that have their R & D units offer Biotechnology professional with handsome pay-package. There are also ample opportunities available for biotechnologists in the food processing industry, chemical industry and the textile industry.

Ceramic Engineering

Ceramic Technology is a new field of engineering that focuses on the characteristics, manufacturing, design, and applications of ceramic materials. Ceramic designers work on a variety of ceramic products that are utilised in industries, homes, institutions, corporate offices, and other settings.

Ceramic ware can be used both for decoration and for practical uses. Table and cookware, ornamental ware such as flower vases, insulators, potters, and building materials such as tiles are all examples of ceramic products. Cement is often regarded as a type of ceramic material.

A ceramic technologist is concerned with study, research and development of the ceramic materials, planning and developing processing systems, designing and construction of plants and machinery along with other engineers, planning and implementation of processing methodologies, designs and development of various applications like glass, porcelain, cement, refractors, insulators, composite materials, enamels, cement etc.

An individual who aspires to make a career in Ceramic Technology is sure to find himself loaded with a wide range of job opportunities. It could be as an entrepreneur or as an employee in a large-scale ceramic ware manufacturing unit, or even in a steel refractory or as a researcher in a lab.

Career Prospects

Both the private and public sectors provide several opportunities for someone coming out of college. Individuals with a degree in Ceramic Technology might work in numerous ceramic ware manufacturing units around the country in the private sector.

Ceramic technicians and ceramic designers are the two sorts of workers who operate in this business. For basic ceramic materials, ceramic designers employ sand and clay, whereas technologists employ materials created through complicated chemical processes. One can also become an entrepreneur by starting their own firm.Jobs in ceramics are also available in the Indian Space Research Organization, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, and Institute for Plasma Research, among other places.

Chemical Engineering

Chemical engineering is concerned with the design and operation of chemical plants, as well as the development of chemical processes for the conversion of raw materials or chemicals into useful forms. It combines chemistry and engineering skills to produce chemicals and their by-products. Biotechnology and nanotechnology, mineral processing, medicines, synthetic fibres, petroleum refining plants, and other disciplines of engineering are all covered by this branch of engineering.

What does a Chemical Engineer do?

Chemical engineers are responsible for the design, management, construction, installation, and operation of chemical manufacturing plants and equipment.

Chemical technologists work in the disciplines of petroleum refining and fertiliser technology to create chemicals with novel qualities that necessitate novel manufacturing procedures.

Chemical engineers work in the processing of food and agricultural goods, paints and dyes, metals, glass, and plastics recycling, cosmetics, mineral-based businesses, and environmental hazard prevention and control.

Chemical engineers work at biotech companies doing research and development to discover new medications.

Career Prospects

Food, materials, specialty chemicals, plastics, power production, biotechnology, tyre manufacturing, nanotechnology, mining process, mineral based industries, petrochemical, plants, pharmaceuticals, synthetic fibres, chemical engineering designs, nuclear energy, materials science, development, and chemical engineering designs are just a few of the industries where Chemical Engineering graduates can find work. Some people choose to work as professors in laboratories and universities.

Those interested in government positions must pass the UPSC\’s Engineering Service Examinations. Engineers work in defence establishments, healthcare-related research initiatives, atomic power plants, environmental regulation, recycling departments, and energy-saving programmes.

Civil Engineering

Civil engineering is one of the oldest and most comprehensive engineering fields, encompassing a wide range of technical skills. Civil engineers plan, design, and supervise the construction of infrastructures such as space satellites and launching facilities, offshore structures, bridges, buildings, tunnels, highways, transit systems, dams, airports, harbours, water supply systems, and wastewater treatment plants, among other things. A civil engineer is in charge of planning and designing a project, as well as constructing it to the needed scale and maintaining it. A civil engineer must possess more than just a high level of engineering knowledge.

What does a Civil Engineer do?

Highways, bridges, and tunnels, as well as schools, hospitals, airports, and other structures, sewage systems, and water treatment facilities, are all designed and built by civil engineers.
Most constructions, large and small, require the assistance of a civil engineer in terms of design, planning, and project management.
Civil engineers also aid in the cleanup of existing pollution and the design of strategies to reduce future pollution of our air, land, and water, which helps to maintain our environment.

What is the future for a Civil Engineering graduate?

Civil engineers work for the state or federal government on significant construction projects such as public works departments (PWD), railways, and the military. Civil engineers are generally needed as project engineers in private construction and real estate enterprises.

Communications Engineering

Communication engineering include radio, the internet, satellites and broadband, as well as wireless telephone services. A communication engineer\’s job entails conducting research, designing, developing, and participating in the production of communication equipment. They offer services, technological expertise, and solutions for many modalities of data transfer and communication. Computer networks, IT, information security, and telephone systems are all areas of expertise for these engineers.

They must have the following qualities:

Network knowledge is essential.

Technical ability and knowledge

Adaptability and the ability to learn new abilities are important qualities.

Organizing abilities

Communication engineers can take up managerial or technical roles and those who gain experience in this field can also choose to work as consultants or work on a contract basis. Their work involves:

  • Offering technical support
  • Managing/working with a team of engineers
  • Undertaking surveys of sites
  • Testing systems
  • Designing/modifying designs
  • Writing reports

Career Prospects

Many posts in this field include handling both managerial as well as technical responsibilities. Communication Engineers can seek employment in the following areas:

Technical services companies-This sector includes companies which have operations in legal, accounting, architectural, engineering, scientific and technical consulting services.

Government departments-Communication engineers can seek employment in jobs at PSUs or work in DRDO, ISRO, BARC etc.

Equipment manufacturers and installers of communication devices/systems-Communication engineers can work in central offices or electronic service centres.

Transport providers-Communication engineers can work with transport providers and help in forecasting the impact of new developments, write reports for planning authorities, and analyse and interpret the data gathered from transport studies.

Computer Science Engineering

Computer Science Engineering (CSE) comprises a number of disciplines that related to computing, like study of algorithms, programming languages, programme design, software, and computer hardware.

Computer Science engineering has origins in electrical engineering, mathematics, and linguistics. Computer Science was previously taught as part of mathematics or engineering departments, but it has recently evolved as a distinct engineering field.

Careers prospects

Software Developers: Software developers are experts who work on various aspects of the software development process, including design and coding, computer programming, project management, and so on.

• Hardware Engineers: These individuals conduct research, design, development, testing, and oversight of computer hardware, which includes computer chips, circuit boards, systems, modems, keyboards, and printers, among other things.

• System Designers: Individuals who work in the fields of system design, logical and physical design. Logical design can be defined as the structure and characteristics of a system, such as output, input, files, databases, and procedures.

System Analyst : Systems analysts are computer engineers that conduct study into current problems and devise solutions. They also make recommendations for software and system issues and coordinate development efforts among business development teams.

• Networking Engineers: Networking engineers are computer experts who work on computer networks\’ design, implementation, and troubleshooting.

• DBA : A DBA, or Database Administrator, is a person tasked with designing, implementing, maintaining, and repairing a company\’s database. In the IT industry, DBAs are also known as Database Coordinators or Database Programmers.

Construction Engineering

Construction Engineering is the management and delivery of construction projects. Construction is considered to be any building projects used for residential, commercial or industrial applications. Civil Engineers that are educated in the field of construction management are classified as Construction Engineers.

They are responsible for planning construction activities, supervising structural element installation, and inspecting the building after it is completed. Construction engineers collaborate with architects and engineering experts to design buildings and solve problems on the job. Construction engineers also prepare reports that detail the project\’s cost feasibility and estimation.

Although not to the same level as a structural engineer, the use of computer-aided design software is frequent. Construction engineers combine project management abilities with a solid understanding of mathematics. Residential dwellings, bridges, skyscrapers, industrial warehouses, and any other infrastructure can be specialised in by construction engineers. The demand for Construction Engineers is determined by the state of the construction industry in each country.

Electrical Engineering

Electrical engineering is a relatively new discipline of engineering, dating back to the late 1800s. It is a discipline of engineering that deals with electrical technology. From small microchips to massive power station generators, electrical engineers work on a diverse range of components, equipment, and systems.

Early experiments with electricity included primitive batteries and static charges. However, the actual design, construction and manufacturing of useful devices and systems began with the implementation of Michael Faraday\’s Law of Induction, which essentially states that the voltage in a circuit is proportional to the rate of change in the magnetic field through the circuit. This law applies to the basic principles of the electric generator, the electric motor and the transformer. The advent of the modern age is marked by the introduction of electricity to homes, businesses and industry, all of which were made possible by electrical engineers. 

Primitive batteries and static charges were used in early electrical experiments. The implementation of Michael Faraday\’s Law of Induction, which states that the voltage in a circuit is proportionate to the rate of change in the magnetic field through the circuit, began the real design, building, and production of usable devices and systems. The essential concepts of the electric generator, electric motor, and transformer are all covered by this rule. The introduction of electricity to homes, businesses, and industry signalled the beginning of the modern era, all of which was made possible by electrical engineers.

Thomas Edison (electric light bulb), George Westinghouse (alternating current), Nikola Tesla (induction motor), Guglielmo Marconi (radio), and Philo T. Farnsworth are some of the most well-known electrical engineering pioneers (television). These pioneers transformed electrical ideas and concepts into practical gadgets and systems that helped usher in the modern era.

Career Prospects

According to the BLS, electrical and electronics engineers work mostly in research and development, engineering services organisations, manufacturing, and the federal government. They often work in offices, although they may be required to travel to locations to inspect a problem or a piece of complex equipment, according to the BLS.

Automotive, marine, railroad, aerospace, defense, consumer electronics, commercial construction, lighting, computers and components, telecommunications, and traffic control are all industries that employ electrical engineers. Transportation departments, national laboratories, and the military are among the government agencies that employ electrical engineers.

A bachelor\’s degree in engineering is required for most electrical engineering employment. Many businesses, particularly those who provide engineering consulting services, also demand Professional Engineer certification from the state. Many firms also insist on certification from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) or the Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) (IET). To stay up with developments in technology, testing equipment, computer hardware and software, and government regulations, a master\’s degree is frequently required for promotion to management. Ongoing education and training are also required to stay up with changes in technology, testing equipment, computer hardware and software, and government laws.

Electronics & Communication Engineering

Electronics and Communication Engineering is concerned with electronic devices, circuits, and communication equipment such as transmitters and receivers, as well as integrated circuits. Basic electronics, analogue and digital data transmission and reception, audio and video (for example, AM, FM, DTH), microprocessors, satellite communication, microwave engineering, antennae, and wave progression are also covered. Its goal is to broaden students\’ understanding and capabilities in fundamental concepts and theories, preparing them for professional work involving analysis, system implementation, operation, production, and maintenance of numerous applications in the field of Electronics and Communications Engineering.

Career Prospects

Students will have a lot of opportunities in the future. Students can readily find work in manufacturing sectors and service organisations such as broadcasting, consulting, data transmission, entertainment, research and development, and system support after completing the degree. Candidates may also find work in modern multimedia service companies that deal with real-time information transfer via video conferencing and internet streaming.

Electronics and communication engineers can find work in a wide range of industries, including Indian Telephone Industries, Civil Aviation, Development Centers in various states, Defense, NPL, A.I.R, Posts and Telegraph Department, Railways, Bharat Electronics Limited, D.R.D.O, Telecommunication, Software Engineering/IT, Power sector, Hardware Manufacturing, and Home Appliances.

Electronics Engineering

Electronics engineering, sometimes known as \”electronic engineering,\” is a modern engineering subject that focuses on the design and development of electronic goods and systems. It arose in the early twentieth century as electronic broadcasting technologies, such as radio and television, became more widely used. Electronic technology such as sonar, radar, and superior weaponry were used in World War II, which expanded the area of electronics engineering.

Electronics engineering has evolved into a broad discipline that includes the design and development of both traditional analogue and high-tech digital components. Many of the technologies we use on a daily basis, such as cellphones, computers, and WiFi networks, are the result of the labour of electronics experts. It is the driving factor behind the modern era\’s rapid rise of information technology.

Telecommunications, radio and television, utilities, health care, science, personal technology manufacturing, government and military all use electronics engineering to upgrade their sectors. The field of electronics engineering is as broad as its uses, with several subcategories focused on distinct uses of electronic technology, such as analogue electronic engineering, radio frequency engineering, software engineering, and systems engineering.

Career Prospects

Electronics engineering aims to deepen the knowledge and skills of the aspirants on the basic concepts and theories that will equip them in their professional work. There are numerous electronics engineer job profiles in the field of electronics engineering. Following are some of the job profiles for Electronics Engineer that one can opt for:

Biomedical Engineers

They combine engineering principles with medical sciences that aims to design and create devices, equipment, computer systems, and software used in healthcare.

Aerospace Engineers

These engineers are primarily responsible to design spacecraft, aircraft, satellites, and missiles. Additionally they create and test prototypes to make sure that they function according to design.

Computer Hardware Engineers

These engineers have a job to design, research, develop, and test computer systems and components such as circuit boards, processors, networks, routers, memory devices etc.

Electrical and Electronics Engineering Technicians

They help the engineers to develop and design the computers, communications equipment, medical monitoring devices, navigational equipment, and other electrical and electronic equipment. Electrical and Electronics Engineering Technicians are involved in the manufacture and deployment of equipment for automation and work in product evaluation and testing, and use measuring and diagnostic devices to adjust, test, and repair equipment.

Engineering Managers

They are responsible to plan, direct, and coordinate activities in architectural and engineering companies.


Their job is to maintain, install, and repair electrical power, communications, lighting, and control systems in businesses, homes and factories.

Electro-mechanical Technicians

They operate, test, and maintain unmanned, automated, robotic, or electromechanical equipment. They combine their knowledge of mechanical technology with knowledge of electrical and electronic circuits.

Electrical and Electronics Installers and Repairers

They are responsible to install or repair a variety of electrical equipment in telecommunications, transportation, utilities, and other industries.

Sales Engineers

Sales engineers must have an extensive knowledge of the products\’ parts and functions. They must understand the scientific processes that make the products work to sell complex scientific and technological products or services to businesses.

Network and Computer Systems Administrators

For carrying out day-to-day operations of the computer networks, network and computer systems administrators are responsible.

Environmental Engineering

Environmental engineering, sometimes known as environmental science, is a vast field that uses scientific and technical ideas to protect and improve the environment. The field focuses on enhancing environmental quality through design and technology.

Air pollution control, industrial hygiene, radiation protection, hazardous waste management, toxic materials control, recycling, water supply, wastewater management, storm water management, solid waste disposal, public health, and land management are the core fields of environmental engineering. There are numerous subcategories within each of these primary groups.

Environmental engineers are technical specialists who are concerned about environmental issues both locally and globally. They apply biology and chemistry ideas to generate environmental solutions and work in a variety of situations using diverse engineering processes. Environmental engineers\’ main goal is to preserve public health by maintaining and improving the environment. They work on creating pollution control equipment and devices, as well as the development, installation, implementation, and operation of environmental procedures.

They also help to protect animals, do research on proposed environmental projects, analyse scientific data, conduct quality control checks, and design municipal and industrial wastewater treatment systems. Environmental engineers also work to prevent acid rain, global warming, ozone depletion, and toxic automotive emissions from occurring and having negative consequences.

Career Prospects

Environmental engineers have several work options, and their responsibilities vary depending on the project. They may gather and analyse data, execute quality control checks, evaluate and devise solutions for environmental dangers, and so on. These professionals are hired by national and state pollution control boards, as well as a number of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in each state that are fighting all sorts of pollution. They can work on air pollution control, greenhouse gases, ozone depletion, pollution\’s side effects on humans, animals, and plants, water quality management, land conservation, and soil conservation, as well as reporting on planned projects\’ environmental impact.

They may be employed in,

  • Government agencies/ department – as health and safety officer; to monitor and regulate waste discharges
  • Laboratories – to develop pollution control systems
  • Municipal agencies – to design and take care of the water supply systems
  • Various industries/ companies – to plan their air or wastewater treatment systems; to treat and dispose of hazardous chemicals
  • Universities/ colleges – to teach and conduct research on environmental control
  • Manufacturing and pharmaceutical companies.
  • International firms working for environmental related projects   
  • Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineering

Industrial engineering is a discipline of engineering that deals with the design, implementation, and assessment of integrated systems of people, knowledge, equipment, energy, materials, and processes. The principles and methods of engineering analysis and synthesis are used in industrial engineering. It saves time, money, materials, energy, and other resources by eliminating waste. Depending on the user\’s perspective or motivations, industrial engineering is sometimes known as operations management, production engineering, or manufacturing engineering. Industrial engineers aim to eliminate waste of time, money, materials, and energy in lean manufacturing systems.

Career Prospects

An industrial engineer\’s profession entails making the most efficient use of people, materials, energy, information, and machinery. Industrial engineers aim to improve efficiency by managing people and reorganising corporate processes. They provide management control systems to help with financial planning, cost analysis, production planning, and physical distribution of goods and services.

Industrial engineers can work in a wide range of industries. Self-employment opportunities as consultants or specialists in methods and work operations are also accessible, usually after a few years of relevant industry experience.They can also work as purchase engineers and technical sales managers in private consulting businesses, large corporation R&D centres, or as buy engineers and technical sales managers in large corporations. Because of the course\’s broad scope, production and industrial engineers can work in both the private and public sectors in a variety of engineering and manufacturing industries. Work-study, operations and maintenance, production planning and control, materials management, value engineering, network models such as PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) /c p m (Critical Path Method), operations research, computer science, finance management, Statistical Quality Control, and so on are some of the disciplines covered by industrial engineering.

Job Options


  • Business systems analyst
  • Business process engineer
  • Production, process, assets or manufacturing engineer
  • Quality control manager
  • Health and safety manager
  • Human resource manager
  • Logistics manager or facilities engineer
  • Project manager
  • Plant supervisor
  • Scheduling and planning manager
  • Operations manager
  • Management consultant

Marine Engineering

The field of engineering that deals with nautical architecture and science is known as marine engineering. Marine engineering refers to study undertaken in oceans, coastal waters, and inland waters that are related to the sea. The construction and repair of ships and other sailing vessels are covered in Marine Engineering courses.

The technical control of the ship is entirely in the hands of marine engineers. They are in charge of choosing the ship\’s machinery, which could include diesel engines, steam turbines, and gas turbines, as well as designing the mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, and control systems throughout the vessel. They are members of a ship\’s crew in charge of supervising a group of maritime specialists and craftspeople. A Marine engineer\’s primary responsibility is the construction, operation, and upkeep of the engine room. That is to say, the Marine Engineer is in charge of the ship\’s technical aspects.A four-year bachelor\’s degree in marine engineering is the minimum educational need for becoming a marine engineer. This is a career that offers a wide range of job prospects, including off-shore positions, and the most appealing aspect is the high pay and NRI status. Marine Engineering is taught in a number of Indian and international institutions. Marine engineers have a lot of career prospects, and their placement rates are around 100 percent. With the increase in international global maritime traffic, the demand for Marine Engineers in both public and commercial shipping corporations has risen dramatically.

Career Prospects

Marine engineering is one of the most popular profession choices among Indian students. In this sector, there are numerous career options. In the private, educational, corporate, and governmental sectors, marine engineers, ocean engineers, and naval architects can find work. When it comes to ships and navigation, marine engineering is the most fundamental profession. A marine engineer\’s key tasks are the design, operation, and maintenance of the engine room.

There are several work chances both in India and in other nations. With modern advancement and computerised navigation, the role of marine engineers has expanded. Environmental protection, offshore oil recovery, marine metals and corrosion, renewable energy, remote sensing, naval architecture, military, undersea vehicles, global climate monitoring, and maritime transportation are some of the job fields in marine engineering.

Some job titles

  • Pumpman
  • Harbor Master
  • Chief Engineer
  • Third Engineer
  • Fourth Engineer
  • Second Engineer
  • Marine Engineering Officers
  • Junior (Fifth) Engineer
  • Navy Weapon Engineering Officer

Mechanical Engineering

Mechanical engineering is a branch of engineering that studies, designs, manufactures, and maintains mechanical systems using physics and materials science concepts. It is a discipline of engineering concerned with the generation and application of heat and mechanical power in the design, manufacture, and operation of machines and tools. It\’s one of the oldest and most diverse engineering fields.

Understanding key topics like as mechanics, kinematics, thermodynamics, materials science, and structural analysis is required in the engineering field. Mechanical engineers build and assess manufacturing facilities, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, transportation systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices, and more using these key ideas and methods like computer-aided engineering and product lifecycle management.

As a result of developments in physics, mechanical engineering science arose in the nineteenth century. The field has developed throughout time to include technological improvements. Mechanical engineers are currently focusing on composites, mechatronics, and nanotechnology improvements. Civil engineering, electrical engineering, petroleum engineering, and chemical engineering all have varying degrees of overlap with mechanical engineering.

Entry into this sector of engineering, like other professions, necessitates a set of basic characteristics. To begin, you must have an interest in mechanical components and equipment, as well as how they work. Physics, chemistry, and mathematics are all required. You\’ll also need analytical thinking, logical reasoning, and problem-solving abilities.

Career Prospects

All manufacturing facilities require mechanical engineers. A mechanical engineer\’s working criteria vary depending on the type and domain of the organisation with which they are employed, as well as their field of expertise. Mechanical engineers, in a larger sense, work on the design and control of a system that is used in the creation of machines and products. He conducts feasibility and efficiency tests on new systems and oversees the quality management and improvement process.

Mechanical engineers have a lot of opportunities in industries including automobile engineering, cement, steel, power, hydraulics, manufacturing plants, drilling and mining, petroleum, aviation, biotechnology, and many more. They are now in greater demand in the sectors of environmental and biomedical research.

Maintenance Engineer, safety Engineer, Quality Assurance, CNC Programmer, Jr. Engineer, Design Engineer, CAD/CAM Trainer, Production Supervisor/Engineer, R&D Trainee, and other positions are available to mechanical engineering beginners.

Top Companies Employing Mechanical Engineers

With a degree or diploma in mechanical engineering, one can find job in various government and private sector companies. Some government sector companies that employ mechanical engineers are:

1.     Indian Army

2.     Indian Railways

3.     Civil services

4.     NTPC

5.     CESC

6.     ISRO

7.     BHEL

Mechatronics Engineering

This program, developed in direct response to industrial demand for engineers with multi-disciplinary skills, is a combination of mechanical, electronics, control, computer and systems design engineering streams. The programme allows engineers to design, construct and run factory production lines and automated processes, where they use their skills in computers, micro-controllers, programmable logic controllers, programming, industrial sensors, hydraulic, pneumatic and electric drives, design of mechanical structures and mechanisms and knowledge of manufacturing processes.

Career Prospects

Job opportunities in Electronics / Mechanics manufacturing industries, Strong demand for Mechatronics engineers in the field of designing, implementing and operating internet control of machines, autonomous robots and engine management systems.

When we talk about the job opportunities in this field, the candidates can opt for jobs both in the government as well as the private sector. There are immense job opportunities in this field such as –

  • Manufacturing Industry
  • Robotics
  • Aerospace
  • Industrial automation
  • Electronics
  • Defense
  • Bio medical system
  • Oil and Gas industry
  • Computer industry

Metallurgical Engineering

Metallurgy is a branch of materials science concerned with the physical and chemical properties of metallic elements, intermetallic compounds, and alloys. Metal is present in nearly every area of modern life. It also includes the study of exotic materials, both pure and mixed, that are used in a variety of sectors. It is one of the most significant disciplines of engineering since current applications, among other things, demand materials with great strength and low weight.

Metals are extracted, refined, and recycled by metallurgical engineers. They address issues such as preventing corrosion, controlling heat levels, and boosting product strength. They contribute to the development and improvement of metals used in the healthcare, transportation, defence, and entertainment industries. A metallurgical engineer\’s work has an impact on other engineering domains. They create core materials that can improve the performance of a variety of products and systems.

Career Prospects

Its a wide field that offers lot of opportunities for young graduates. Metallurgical engineers can seek employment in metal and metal extraction companies. They can also opt for teaching positions in universities and colleges. A metallurgical engineer can take up any of the following profiles like Researcher, Metallurgist, Welding Engineer, Plant Equipment Engineer, Ballistics Engineer, Quality Planning Engineer, Senior Process Engineer, Metallurgical R&D Lab Technician, Vendor Development Engineer etc.

Q. What is engineering?

A. Engineering is the application of science and mathematics for making properties of matter and the sources of energy in nature useful to people.

Q. What is a professional engineer?

A. Professional engineers are the ones who had completed the rigorous education, passed the final examination, and acquired the relevant experience. Only such engineers are permitted to offer engineering services to the public.

Q. What do engineers do?

A. Engineers take abstract ideas and apply science and mathematics to build products to meet the needs of mankind.

Q. What is the difference between science and engineering?

A. Science is knowledge based on observed facts and tested truths whereas Engineering is the creative application of scientific principles. Engineering is used to plan, build, direct, guide, manage, or work on systems to maintain and improve the daily lives of people.

Q. How many types of engineering specialities are there?

A. There are different types of engineering streams such as Aerospace, Agricultural, Biomedical, Chemical, Civil (General and Structural), Computer, Control Systems, Electrical and Electronics, Industrial, Manufacturing, Mechanical, Mining, Nuclear, and Petroleum.

Q. What are the major breakthroughs attributed to engineers in improving the quality of our everyday lives?

A. From the mass production of the automobile to space travel, Telephone, the Internet, and from bioengineered foods to clean water, engineers’ expertise has improved the quality of our lives.

Q. Who was the world\’s first engineer?

A. Perhaps, Imhotep of Egypt was the first engineer as he built the Step Pyramid in 2250 BC.

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